Tag Archives: France

Net neutrality survives a vicious attack in France

Wikipedia defines network neutrality as the principle that

Internet service providers and governments should treat all data on the Internet equally, not discriminating or charging differentially by user, content, site, platform, application, type of attached equipment, and modes of communication

Let me explain the situation to you in a simple way. Say, I put up a post that bores you with my daily office commute. It has a 30 minute, 30 MB video shot from a HD camera fixed to my helmet; and a hundred 1 MB stills from the video. Soon, this post draws 100 unique views (I can dream!). One of the views is from you – my reader.

I host this website on Leanservers. I pay them for hosting. Part of that money goes towards server hardware cost. A non-trivial part goes towards bandwidth cost. This is the money that goes to a chain of companies – to Leanservers first, who then pay their data center, who then pay their telecom service provider, and so on until some amount reaches the companies who maintain the inter-continental submarine fiber-optic links – the physical backbone of the modern Internet. For my commute post, the details are 130 MB storage and 13 GB bandwidth. At the end of my billing cycle, I will get a nice bill for both.

You subscribe to an ISP, obviously. May be a 150GB monthly plan with 2Mbps/512Kbps speed limits. When you load my commute blog post, your monthly quota will go down by 130MB and the page will load in… just over 8 minutes. What if you have an unlimited plan? The cost structure of an unlimited plan is determined by estimating how much the user will download in the billing cycle. Nonetheless, you have paid the ISP and through the ISP, the entire telecom food chain up to the submarine cable companies.

Thus, it is clear all involved parties receive payment for their services.

Some people like Xavier Niel, owner of France’s Free ISP, however, believe this is not fair. He states that my video will choke Free’s bandwidth and hence I should pay Free extra so that my visitors from that particular ISP can view my beautiful commute post in its entirety. This violates the net neutrality principle in many ways.

  • How is Free quantifying that my video will choke the bandwidth? Video is data – electronic bytes. A 30 minutes video is equal to N number (admittedly some huge number) of chat messages. Tomorrow, if chat programs choke Free’s bandwidth, will Mr. Niel ask Yahoo!, MSN (Microsoft), GTalk (Google), etc. to start paying Free money to facilitate online chat?
  • If it is “heavy” content like videos and VOIP that chokes the bandwidth, why did Free recently block advertisements, specially Google AdServe? One would think that Google’s ads are some of the least obtrusive and most bandwidth efficient ads around. This was a veiled attempt to gain leverage against Google’s Youtube. This block was done in a software update at the router level – the routers that they give to their users; and blocking was enabled by default.
  • Mr. Niel has a stake in a newspaper – Le Monde. (I am not in France; can someone check whether it is completely ad-free and without high-quality images?) There is an ongoing battle in Europe and the US where newspapers are trying to make Google pay for links to their websites appearing in search results and in the Google News application. Think about it – Google helps them get more traffic (and earn money if they are not complete idiots) and they want it to pay for the “privilege” of doing so!

Sanity prevailed and Free was forced to roll back this block, by the French Digital Economy minister, no less!

Many ISPs in Europe and the United States are attempting to charge content providers for the “privilege” of being accessible by their customers. Video streaming sites are the first batch of possible victims of this onslaught. VOIP applications will come next. Chat apps will follow – just imagine if ISPs start charging for reducing latency of chat messages. They can make or break entire social networks.

  • The heavy data argument is a false flag planted by the ISPs. The intention is to distract the ISP’s customers and regulatory bodies from the dismal state of last mile infrastructure that these companies maintain. And of course, they weasel out of maintaining and expanding even core backbone infrastructure. After investment banking and patent trolling, ISPs earn the most obscene amounts of profit.
  • Free gained its market share by offering services at disruptive prices to its customers. If the customer doesn’t pay, who pays for telecom infrastructure costs? This model is never sustainable in the long-term. Now Free is attempting to extort money from content providers to continue providing subsidized services to their customers. The content providers either pay the ISPs or have their ad revenue dry up.

Be vigilant. Should such a threat arise in your service area, write to your ISP and complain to your regulatory body in the clearest and firmest of terms.

Techworld.com has a piece with a beautiful explanation

Put very simply, some ISPs resent being turned into dumb pipes over which companies such Google rake in profits from consumers. Controversially, their answer is to seek to control – or in this case a block – on such services until such time as they can get a cut.

Put simply, that’s all they are. Dumb pipes. If their customers are drawing more content than the pipes can handle, the problem lies between the customer and the ISP. Obviously the customer will demand fatter pipes at same or marginally higher cost. It is up to the ISP to make this upgrade fit within their operating margins. Whatever they decide, charging content providers or blocking ads is not the solution.

 

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freedom versus conformity in religion

A friend of mine posted a picture on Facebook recently. It juxtaposed a nun next to a woman in full hijab and asked plaintively – why is one allowed and the other persecuted?

Oh, you  mean you really don’t know?

Well then, one is a uniform for women who are in service to their religious order. It is not forced on the entire general female populace. The other is a symbol of systemic oppression forced on the female populace by many religions and cultures. Of course, Islam is not the only religion that steps on the liberty of women. Hindu religion and culture are big in that department too. Just as Islam has the hijab, Indian cultures have purdah. Most societies in the world do it. It is a patriarchal society after all!

The well-polished explanations and reasons given for the hijab –

  • It is not by force. Really. Not by force!
  • It is to protect the modesty, innocence, chastity, etc.
  • Rewards in later life or heaven.

The friend’s wife then got into the act. Apparently she was under the impression that I was taking a shot at Islam, me being  (technically and/or legally) a Hindu and all –

  • A woman is free to decide on her clothing.
  • All religions (including – wait for itHinduism!) recommend that women should cover themselves modestly.
  • I should know that my religion has faults too, before commenting on such sensitive issues.

So –

  • I am a spiritual atheist. While I believe in a greater power beyond the grasp of science as it is now, I do not subscribe to any religion. I am Hindu by accident of birth; but I don’t practise Hinduism. Hence, I don’t take kindly to accusations of partisanship.
  • I don’t read religious texts nor do I undertake scholastic trips to understand the “deeper meaning” of various religions and their practices. I do have, however, a basic common sense of how religious and cultural norms violate  liberties of the mind and person.
  • When your maulvis issue fatwas and your religious brethren kill or maim women and girls for not adhering to your “modest dress” code, you lose all moral authority on the issue.
  • Your religion dictates your dress code. In a secular society, religion is a personal matter. Thus your religious dress code is effective only in your house. This is the basic premise for France outlawing the hijab in public and state premises.

I rest my case.

 

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